Renewable energy resources have become an increasingly significant part of power generation for reducing fossil fuel consumption and pollutant emission. Wind and solar energy resources are the most promising options among available renewable energy resources, as they are ever-present, freely available, and environmentally friendly. However, in the presence of renewable resources such as wind and solar energy, the future power grid faces uncertainties that can cause serious issues such as blackouts. In this regard, battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are promising solutions to overcome potential challenges in transmission and distribution levels .
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